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American Depositary Receipt (ADR)

Remember Fedex (FDX).

An American depositary receipt (ADR) is a negotiable security that represents securities of a non-US company that trade in the US financial markets. Securities of a foreign company that are represented by an ADR are called American depositary shares (ADSs).

Shares of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through ADRs. ADRs are denominated and pay dividends in US dollars and may be traded like regular shares of stock. Over-the-counter ADRs may only trade in extended hours.An American depositary receipt (ADR) is a negotiable security that represents securities of a non-US company that trade in the US financial markets. Securities of a foreign company that are represented by an ADR are called American depositary shares (ADSs).

Shares of many non-US companies trade on US stock exchanges through ADRs. ADRs are denominated and pay dividends in US dollars and may be traded like regular shares of stock. Over-the-counter ADRs may only trade in extended hours.

Vertical Markets

Vertical markets are one form of a niche market. A vertical market is tightly focused on meeting the needs of one specific industry. Essentially, a vertical market is composed of a subset of vendors and customers that conduct transactions that are based on particular needs. Generally, a vertical market will appear as a small group within a larger industry setting, with the vendor supplying products and services that are directly related to the a customer who is considered part of the same industry.

A vertical market is different from a horizontal market in one key aspect. While the vertical market addresses specific needs associated with the market sector, a horizontal market will have a broader appeal. The products and services offered in the horizontal market will still be useful to the customer, but much less specialized. This makes it possible for vendors in horizontal markets to sell the same goods to businesses that are engaged in a number of different industries.

One of the easiest ways to understand a vertical market is to look within a given industry and note situations where both the customer and the vendor are engaged in some aspect of that same industry. Telecommunications is an excellent example of an industry with vertical markets.

For example, a teleconference service provider is a specialized telecommunications provider. The teleconference company will purchase bridging equipment from a manufacturer in order to set up a working call center. In this scenario, both the provider and the manufacturer are considered to be part of the same industry.

A company that manufactures automobile parts would belong to a vertical market. It would have a limited market of - auto manufacturers and mechanics - for its products. A furniture manufacturer, on the other hand, would belong to a horizontal market because its customer base could include homeowners, apartment dwellers, offices, hotels, restaurants and more.

Horizontal Markets

Horizontal market is a market that supplies many industries, in contrast with a vertical market that supplies just one. A market diversified so that the products created are able to meet the needs of more than one industry. There are a number of advantages to developing products and services that can be offered on the horizontal market and many companies make diversification of their offerings a priority when they are in the research and development stages. Companies that are flexible enough to offer products on a horizontal market are often more capable of weathering changes in the economic climate, as well as industry-wide shifts that may lead some industries to abandon certain types of products and services.

One example of a horizontal market is the market for computer software. People in a wide range of industries including individual consumers, education professionals, governments, and businesses need computer software. Something like a word processing program can be used by a variety of people and can be sold on the horizontal market. By contrast, a point of sale program designed specifically for grocery stores is an example of a vertical market item because it is aimed at only one industry.

Plastic pellets are another example. Numerous industries need raw plastic for manufacturing. They can obtain pellets in a variety of sizes with different compositions through numerous suppliers. Suppliers, in turn, can market their products to many different potential buyers, ensuring a steady supply of customers and orders. These highly generalized products are useful to people in many different industries and positions.

         
 
         
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DATA INFORMATION ETF SECTORS
SOURCE Data derived from multiple sources or calculated by Yahoo! Finance
WEB www.yahoo.com
FREQUENCY Daily
AVAILABILITY Daily
COVERAGE Chart Explained
REVISIONS No
IMPORTANCE Bonds - Very Important
         
   
Abbreviation Guide:
K = Thousands; M = Millions; B = Billions
mrq = Most Recent Quarter
ttm = Trailing Twelve Months
yoy = Year Over Year
lfy = Last Fiscal Year
fye = Fiscal Year Ending
Currency: Quotes in USD.
Shares outstanding: taken from the most recently filed quarterly or annual report.
Market Cap: calculated using shares outstanding.
EBITDA: calculated by Capital IQ using methodology that may differ from that used by a company in its reporting
         
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